Characters based on real people in Alice in Wonderland

Here are some of the characters in Alice in Wonderland who were based on real people:

Alice Liddell (1852 – 1934) was the inspiration for the character of Alice in the book. Alice was the daughter of Henry Liddell, the Dean of Christ Church at Oxford University, where Lewis Carroll (whose real name was Charles Dodgson) was a mathematics professor. The story was originally told by Carroll to Alice and her sisters during a boat trip, and Alice enjoyed it so much that she asked him to write it down for her.
Alice Liddell

The Dodo / The White Knight
Charles Dodgson (1832 – 1898) aka Lewis Carroll (as the Dodo): Lewis Carroll himself appears in the book as the Dodo, a character known for his love of puns and his tendency to lead others in circular arguments. The Dodo’s name is a play on the word “Dodgson,” Carroll’s real last name, and how he used to stutter and present himself as “Do..Do..Dodgson”.
In “Through the Looking Glass”, Dodgson is represented by the character of the White Knight.

The Lory and The Eaglet
Alice Liddell had two sisters named Lorina (1849 – 1930) and Edith (1854 – 1876). Lorina is thought to have inspired the character of the lory, a bird who appears in the caucus race scene. Edith is thought to have inspired the character of the Eaglet in the same scene.

Edith, Lorina and Alice (from left to right). Photograph by Julia Margaret Cameron.

The Duck
Reverend Robinson Duckworth (1834 – 1911) was a friend of Dodgson / Carroll, who accompanied him on the boat trip during which he first told the story of “Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland.” In the book, Duckworth appears as the Duck, a fictional bird who swims alongside Alice and the other animals.
Rev. Robinson Duckworth

The Mad Hatter
It’s suggested by some that the character of the Mad Hatter was based on a man named Theophilus Carter (1824 – 1904), who was a furniture dealer in Oxford. Carter was known for wearing a top hat that he decorated himself, and he was reportedly quite eccentric and somewhat “mad.”

The Duchess
While the Duchess was not based on a real person, it is thought that Sir John Tenniel based her on the painting of “The Ugly Duchess” or “A grotesque old woman” by Quentin Matsys around 1513.